Glossary – Neuroceutik

Glossary

  •  Adrenaline: A catecholamine hormone, also known as epinephrinesecreted by the mammalian adrenal medulla as well as the adrencergic nerve endings. Its secretion is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system under conditions of stress. Adrenaline stimulates blood flow to skeletal muscles and increases blood glucose levels.
  • Alanine: This amino acid has an important function in the transfer of nitrogen from peripheral tissues to the liver. Alanine helps glucose metabolism, a simple carbohydrate that the body uses as energy. It protects us from the accumulation of toxic substances released into muscle cells when the muscle protein breaks down quickly to meet the energy requirements, such as in the case of aerobic exercise. It is recalled that this amino acid strengthens the immune system with the production of antibodies.
  • Amino acid: Any of the alpha-amino acids that are the chief components of proteins and are synthesized by living cells or arc obtained as essential components of the diet.
  • Arginine: It is considered the "natural viagra" for increased blood flow. Among its functions: delay the growth of tumors and cancers to strengthen the immune system; increase the size and activity of the thyroid gland that produces T cells (essential components of the immune system). Helps the detoxification of the liver by neutralizing ammonia, it reduces the effects of chronic toxicity of alcohol used in the treatment of male infertility. This amino acid helps to lose weight because it promotes the increase of muscle mass and a reduction of body fat. It helps release growth hormones and tissue repair. Important component of collagen, it is used to treat arthritis and connective tissue problems.
  • Aspartic Acid: Increases resistance and helps in case of chronic fatigue and depression. This amino acid rejuvenates activity and cell formation and metabolism. It protects the liver helping the expulsion of ammonia and it combines with other amino acids to form molecules that absorb toxins and eliminate them from the bloodstream. It also helps the circulation of some minerals through the intestinal mucosa, blood and cells. We must not forget its role for the function of RNA and DNA that carry genetic information.
  • Bioavailability: The degree to which or rate at which a substance is absorbed or becomes available at the site of physiological activity after administration.
  • Blood-brain barrier: A barrier created by the modification of brain capillaries that prevents many substances from leaving the blood and crossing the capillary walls into the brain tissues.
  • Carbohydrates: Any of a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums and serves as a major energy source in our diet.
  • Catecholamine: An amine derivative of catechol that acts as a hormone or neurotransmitter. The catecholamines include dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline.
  • Central Nervous System (CNS): The part of the nervous system responsible for the integration of nervous activity. It consists of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.
  • Cortical area: Any of various regions of the cerebral cortex.
  • Cysteine: Works as an important antioxidant in the detoxification of harmful toxins. It protects the body from radiation, liver and brain from problems related to alcohol, drugs and toxic compounds found in cigarette smoke. It is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and induration of the arteries. Another function of this amino acid is to promote the elimination of fat and muscle formation and delay aging. The skin and the hair are composed of 10% -14% of this amino acid.
  • Dopamine: A monoamine neurotransmitter formed in the brain that is essential to the normal functioning of the central nervous system.
  • Glucose: A monosaccharide sugar occurring widely in most plant and animal tissue. It is the principal circulating sugar in the blood and the major energy source of the body.
  • Glutamine: It is one of the amino acids most present in the muscles. It contributes to the construction and maintenance of muscle tissue, the prevention of muscle wasting that can be accompanied by long periods of rest or diseases such as cancer or HIV. This amino acid is a "brain fuel" that increases brain function and mental activity. Glutamine promotes a healthy digestive system, reduces ulcer treatment time and controls fatigue, depression and impotence. It decreases the craving for sugar and alcohol and lately it is used to treat schizophrenia and dementia..
  • Glutamic Acid: Acts as an exciting neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, brain and spinal cord. It is important in the metabolism of sugars and fats. Glutamic acid helps transport potassium into the cerebrospinal fluid and acts as a fuel for the brain and corrects personality disorders. This amino acid is used to treat epilepsy, mental retardation and muscular dystrophy
  • Glycemic Index: The glycemic index is a useful tool that measures how fast a particular food is likely to raise your blood sugar.
  • Glycine: Delays muscle degeneration, improves glycogen storage releasing glucose for energy needs. This amino acid promotes a healthy prostate, nervous and immune system. Glycine is useful for repairing damaged tissue.
  • Histidine: This amino acid is found in hemoglobin and is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, ulcers and anemias. It is essential for the growth and repair of tissues and for the maintenance of myelin sheaths that protect nerve cells. Histidine is also useful for the production of red and white blood cells, to protect the body from radiation, reduce arterial pressure and help remove heavy metals from the body.
  • Insulin: A polypeptide hormone functioning in the régulation of the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, especially the conversion of glucose to glycogen, witch lowers the blood glucose level. 
  • Isoleucine: Is essential for the formation of hemoglobin, to regulate blood sugar and energy levels. This amino acid is super important for athletes because it helps the treatment and repair of muscle tissue, skin and bones. It has been observed that the amount of this amino acid is insufficient in people who suffer from mental and physical problems.
  • Leucine: Interacts with isoleucine and valine to speed healing the muscle tissue, skin and bones. It is recommended for those who have had surgery. This amino acid lowers blood sugar levels and helps increase the production of growth hormone.
  • Lipid: Any of various substances that with proteins and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of living cells, and that include fats, waxes, phosphatides, cerebrosides, and related and derived compounds.
  • Lysine: Guarantees the proper absorption of calcium and maintains a nitrogen balance for adults. In addition, lysine is responsible for the formation of collagen, which constitutes cartilage and connective tissue, the production of antibodies that fight against cold sores, and the reduction of high levels of triglycerides in the serum.
  • Méthionine: A powerful antioxidant and a good source of sulfur. It avoids problems with hair, skin and nails. It also plays an important role in the breakdown of fat by preventing accumulation in the liver and arteries that can block blood flow to the brain, heart and kidneys. This amino acid helps the detoxification of harmful agents like lead and other heavy minerals, decreases muscle weakness and protects against radiation. It is very important for women taking oral contraceptives. Methionine reduces the level of histamine in the body that can cause the brain to send false messages.
  • Micronutrient: A substance, such as a vitamin or mineral, that is essential in minute amounts for the proper growth and metabolism of a living organism.
  • Neuron: Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves. Also called nerve cell.
  • Neurotransmitter: A chemical that is secreted by a neuron and mediates the transmission of a nerve impulse across a synapse. (e.g.: dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin.)
  • Noradrenalin: A neurotransmitter, also known as norepinephrine, present within the brain and released from the adrenal medulla. It also acts as neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system at post ganglionic effector junctions. Effects include powerful vasoconstriction.
  • Noradrenergic: Stimulated by or releasing norepinephrine.
  • Ornithine: It helps measure the release of growth hormones by helping the body fat metabolism (this effect is major when combined with arginine and carnitine). This amino acid is essential for a healthy immune system because it detoxifies ammonia and helps the regeneration of the liver and the secretion of insulin. Ornitin makes insulin work like an anabolic hormone to build muscle.
  • Phenylalanine: An amino acid used by the brain to produce norepinephrine, a chemical that transmits signals from nerve cells and the brain. It promotes alertness and vitality. Phenylalanine contributes to a good state of mind, decreases pain and helps memory during learning. It is used to treat diseases such as arthritis, depression, menstrual cramps, hemicrania, obesity, Parkinson's and schizophrenia.
  • Proline: This amino acid has the function of improving the weaving of the skin by aiding collagen production and reducing the loss through the aging process. Prolin helps the healing of cartilage and strengthens the joints, tendons and muscles of the heart. This amino acid works with vitamin C to keep connective tissues healthy.
  • Protein: Any of numerous naturally occurring extremely complex substances that consist of amino acid residues joined by peptide bonds, contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, usually sulfur, and occasionally other elements (as phosphorus or iron), and include many essential biological compounds (as enzymes, hormones, or immunoglobulins).
  • Serine: It is necessary for a correct metabolism of fat and fatty acids, for the growth of muscles and the maintenance of a healthy immune system. Serine is one of the protective myelin sheaths that cover nerve fibers. It is still important for the functioning of RNA and DNA, the formation of cells and the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies
  • Serotonin (5-HT): A neuro transmitter synthesized in nervous tissue that is associated with the sleep cycle.
  • Serotoninergic: Activated by or capable of liberating serotonin, especialy in transmitting nerve impulses.
  • Substratc: The base on which an organism lives.
  • Taurine: Strengthens the heart muscle, improves vision and prevents macular degeneration. It is a key component of bile, necessary for digestion of fat and useful for people with arteriosclerosis, edema, heart problems, hypertension and hypoglycemia. It is an essential amino acid for the correct use of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Taurine prevents the development of potentially dangerous cardiac arrhythmias and is used to treat anxiety, epilepsy, hyperactivity and convulsions.
  • Threonine: Has the function of helping to maintain the proper amount of protein in the body. It is also important for the formation of collagen, elastin and tooth enamel. This amino acid still works in the lipotropic function of the liver when it combines with aspartic acid and methionine. Threonine prevents the accumulation of fat in the liver, its metabolism and its assimilation.
  • Tryptophan: A natural relaxant that helps treat insomnia. Tryptophan reduces anxiety and depression and stabilizes mood and helps treat hemicrania. It helps the immune system to function properly. This amino acid controls weight by reducing appetite, increasing the release of growth hormones and controlling the hyperactivity of children.
  • Tyrosine: An important amino acid for general metabolism. It is a precursor of adrenaline and dopamine that regulate the state of mind. This amino acid stimulates the metabolism and the nervous system, acts positively on the state of mind and helps reduce body fat. Tyrosine is involved in the production of melanin (the pigment responsible for the color of hair and skin) and in the functions of the adrenal glands, the thyroid gland and the pituitary gland. It is used against chronic fatigue, narcolepsy, anxiety, depression, allergies and headache.
  • Valine: Essential for muscle metabolism, coordination, tissue repair and the maintenance of nitrogen balance in the body that muscle tissue uses as a source of energy. This amino acid is also useful for treating diseases of the liver and gallbladder. In addition, it promotes mental vigor and relaxed emotions.